Monday, April 22, 2013

1304.5520 (Julian Struck et al.)

Engineering Ising-XY spin models in a triangular lattice via tunable
artificial gauge fields

Julian Struck, Malte Weinberg, Christoph Ölschläger, Patrick Windpassinger, Juliette Simonet, Klaus Sengstock, Robert Höppner, Philipp Hauke, André Eckardt, Maciej Lewenstein, Ludwig Mathey
Emulation of gauge fields for ultracold atoms provides access to a class of exotic states arising in strong magnetic fields. Here we report on the experimental realisation of tunable staggered gauge fields in a periodically driven triangular lattice. For maximal staggered magnetic fluxes, the doubly degenerate superfluid ground state breaks both a discrete Z2 (Ising) symmetry and a continuous U(1) symmetry. By measuring an Ising order parameter, we observe a thermally driven phase transition from an ordered antiferromagnetic to an unordered paramagnetic state and textbook-like magnetisation curves. Both the experimental and theoretical analysis of the coherence properties of the ultracold gas demonstrate the strong influence of the Z2 symmetry onto the condensed phase.
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